Smaller transistors suffer from tiny flaws

Shrinking transistors makes them faster and allows designers to squeeze more of them onto a single chip. “But the gotcha is that they also become more highly variable,” says engineer Duane Boning of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. When etching tiny transistors and connections, it is impossible to control their size and composition exactly due to random fluctuations during the manufacturing process. In the past that has not mattered because the variations tended to be insignificant compared with the total size of these components. Now,
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